Simon Colton

Professor in Digital Games Technologies (Falmouth)
and Computational Creativity (Goldsmiths)

About me

Hello there – I’m Simon Colton. I hold an ERA Chair in Digital Games Technology at Falmouth University. I’m also a Professor of Computational Creativity in the Department of Computing of Goldsmiths College, University of London, and I hold an EPSRC Leadership Fellowship. Previously, I was a Reader in Computational Creativity in the Department of Computing at Imperial College, London.

I’m an Artificial Intelligence researcher, specialising in questions of Computational Creativity. In particular, I lead the Computational Creativity Group. We develop and investigate novel AI techniques and apply them to creative tasks in domains such as pure mathematics, graphic design, video game design, creative language and the visual arts. By taking an overview of creativity in such domains, we also add to the philosophical discussion of creativity, by addressing issues raised by the idea of autonomously creative software. This has enabled us to drive forward various formalism projects aimed at bringing more rigour to the assessment of creativity in software.

At Imperial, I taught courses on Artificial Intelligence and Ludic Computing to both undergraduate and postgraduate classes. I have also given a course at the Helsinki Autumn School on Computational Creativity. Please see our group’s teaching pages for materials.

I’m the guy behind The Painting Fool, which is a computer program that we hope will one day be taken seriously as a creative artist in its own right. www.thepaintingfool.com.

I’m on a number of programme committees for AI events each year, and often I’m involved in organising an event or two. Please see our group’s blog for more information.

You can contact me on .[at]...

Academic CV

You can find my academic CV here.

Recent Talks

Recent talks will be added here soon.

Publications

We investigate three principal areas of research. Firstly, we have developed and continue to improve upon a novel machine learning algorithm called Automated Theory Formation (ATF), which invents concepts, discovers regularities in data, and uses third party reasoning systems to prove and disprove hypotheses. Secondly, we investigate fruitful ways in which to combine disparate AI methods so that the whole is more than the sum of the parts. Thirdly, we apply ATF and various combined reasoning systems to intelligent tasks involving the simulation of creative behaviour in pure mathematics, bioinformatics, graphic design, visual arts and video game design. We are particularly interested in the technical and sociological challenges involved in building AI software which is independently creative. Our research can be broadly categorised into the eight areas described below.

Books

Angelides,
Agius (eds)
Wiley-IEEE Press, 2014

McCormack,
d’Inverno (eds)
Springer, 2012

Dzeroski,
Todorovski (eds)
Springer, 2007

Theses

Colton, Simon

Automated Theory Formation in Pure Mathematics PhD Thesis

2001.

Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Involving Computers with Mathematics, Minimum Distances of Quadratic Residue Codes Masters Thesis

1996.

Links | BibTeX

Papers

Please click on category to expand.

The Development of Automated Theory Formation

Automated Theory Formation (ATF) is a novel machine learning technique which has been developed over 12 years, and which is implemented in the HR system. Given some background knowledge, HR forms new concepts from old ones using a set of production rules, and then makes conjectures which relate the concepts, by appealing to empirical patterns in the examples of the concepts. HR then uses third party systems to prove/disprove the conjectures (usually the Otter theorem prover and the MACE model generator). HR also interacts with computer algebra systems such as Maple and Gap, in order to calculate values for concepts. To drive a heuristic search, HR uses a weighted sum – with the weights set by the user – of measures of interestingness for concepts, i.e., having decided which concept is most interesting, HR builds new concepts from this. My book is the main reference text for Automated Theory Formation.

The following papers describe some of the fundamental aspects of automated theory formation. The first paper is the main reference for ATF as an Inductive Logic Programming system, the other papers are from quite early on in the development of ATF.

Colton, Simon; Ramezani, Ramin; Llano, Maria Teresa

The HR3 discovery system: Design decisions and implementation details Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AISB symposium on Computational Scientific Discovery, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Muggleton, Stephen

Mathematical applications of inductive logic programming Journal Article

In: Machine Learning, 64 (1-3), pp. 25–64, 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

The HR program for theorem generation Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Automated Deduction, pp. 285–289, Springer 2002.

Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

An application-based comparison of ATF and ILP Journal Article

In: Electron. Trans. Artif. Intell., 4 (B), pp. 97–117, 2000, ISSN: 1401-9841.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

Automatic identification of mathematical concepts Inproceedings

In: ICML, pp. 183–190, 2000.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

Automatic concept formation in pure mathematics Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of IJCAI, 1999.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

HR-automatic concept formation in finite algebras Inproceedings

In: AAAI/IAAI, pp. 1170, Technical Report 920,(Presented at the Machine Discovery Workshop at ECAI 98) Department of Artificial Intelligence, University of Edinburgh 1998.

Links | BibTeX

Bundy, Alan; Colton, Simon; Walsh, Toby

HR-a system for machine discovery in finite algebras Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Machine Discovery Workshop at ECAI, Citeseer, 1998.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Cresswell, Stephen; Bundy, Alan

The use of classification in automated mathematical concept formation Book

University of Edinburgh, Department of Artificial Intelligence, 1997.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

More Sophisticated Mathematical Theory Formation Models

We have taken Automated Theory Formation as the basis for more in-depth studies into how mathematical theories can be formed automatically. In addition to providing extensions to the basic automated theory formation model and providing more background to the subject, these projects have led to more sophisticated systems for mathematical invention and machine learning in general, which take into account philosophical and psychological perspectives on theory formation. The following papers describe some of our projects in this area:

Schorlemmer, Marco; Smaill, Alan; Kühnberger, Kai-Uwe; Kutz, Oliver; Colton, Simon; Cambouropoulos, Emilios; Pease, Alison

COINVENT: Towards a Computational Concept Invention Theory Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Charnley, John; Pease, Alison

Automated Theory Formation: The Next Generation Journal Article

In: IFCOLOG Journal Proceedings in Computational Logic, 2013.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cavallo, Flaminia; Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison

Uncertainty Modelling in Automated Concept Formation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, pp. 53, Citeseer, 2012.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Smaill, Alan; Colton, Simon; Ireland, Andrew; Llano, Maria Teresa; Ramezani, Ramin; Grov, Gudmund; Guhe, Markus

Applying Lakatos-style reasoning to AI problems Book Chapter

In: Thinking Machines and the philosophy of computer science: Concepts and principles., Chapter 10, pp. 149–174, Information Science Reference, 2010, ISBN: 9781616920142.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Ramezani, Ramin; Smaill, Alan; Guhe, Markus

Using Analogical Representations for Mathematical Concept Formation Incollection

In: Model-Based Reasoning in Science and Technology, 314 , pp. 301–314, Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2010, ISBN: 978-3-642-15222-1.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Three Next Generation Approaches to Automated Mathematical Theory Formation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Model Based Reasoning Conference, 2009.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Torres, Pedro; Colton, Simon

First-Order Logic Concept Symmetry for Theory Formation Inproceedings

In: Automated Reasoning Workshop 2009 Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice, pp. 41, 2009.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Crook, Paul; Smaill, Alan; Colton, Simon; Guhe, Markus

Towards a Computational Model of Embodied Mathematical Language Book Chapter

In: Proceedings of the Second Symposium on Computing and Philosophy, pp. 35–37, Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour, 2009, ISBN: 1902956826.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Torres, Pedro; Colton, Simon

Automated Meta-Theory Induction in Pure Mathematics Incollection

In: Proceedings of the 2008 Automated Reasoning Workshop, 8 , Citeseer, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Wagner, Daniel

Using Formal Concept Analysis in Mathematical Discovery Incollection

In: Towards Mechanized Mathematical Assistants, pp. 205–220, Springer, 2007.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Torres, Pedro; Colton, Simon

Proving Producibility of Concepts Journal Article

In: 2007.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Torres, Pedro; Colton, Simon

Towards Meta-Level Descriptive ILP Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming, 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Torres, Pedro; Cairns, Paul; Sorge, Volker

Managing Automatically Formed Mathematical Theories Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Mathematical Knowledge Management, pp. 237–250, Springer 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Torres, Pedro; Colton, Simon

Using Model Generation in Automated Concept Formation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, pp. 41, Citeseer, 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Smaill, Alan; Lee, John

A Model of Lakatos’s Philosophy of Mathematics Book

College Publications, 2004.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison

Lakatos-style Methods in Automated Reasoning Inproceedings

In: In Proceedings of the IJCAI’03 workshop on Agents and Reasoning, Citeseer 2003.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Bundy, Alan; Colton, Simon; Huczynska, Sophie; McCasland, Roy

New Directions in Automated Conjecture Making Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, 2003.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Smaill, Alan; Lee, John

Semantic Negotiation: Modelling Ambiguity in Dialogue Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of Edilog 2002, the 6th Workshop on the semantics and pragmatics of dialogue, 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Smaill, Alan; Lee, John

Lakatos-style Reasoning Book Chapter

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, Imperial College, London, Society for the Study of Artificial Intelligence and Simulation of Behaviour, 2002, ISBN: 1902956265.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Smaill, Alan; Lee, John

A Multi-agent Approach to Modelling Interaction in Human Mathematical Reasoning Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of Intelligent Agent Technology, 2001.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Experiments in Meta-theory Formation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AISB’01 Symposium on Artificial Intelligence and Creativity in Arts and Science, pp. 100–109, 2001.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Automated "Plugging and Chugging" Inproceedings

In: Symbolic computation and automated reasoning, pp. 247–248, AK Peters, Ltd. 2001.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Assessing Exploratory Theory Formation Programs Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AAAI-2000 workshop on new research directions in machine learning, 2000.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

Agent Based Cooperative Theory Formation in Pure Mathematics Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of AISB 2000 symposium on creative and cultural aspects and applications of AI and cognitive science, pp. 11–18, 2000.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Steel, Graham; Colton, Simon; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

Cross Domain Mathematical Concept Formation Technical Report

The University of Edinburgh 2000.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

The Combination of Reasoning Systems

As described above, the HR system for theory formation routinely appeals to third party software as part of its core routine. This led us to address the more general question of when it is possible to combine AI techniques so that the whole is more than a sum of the parts. In total, we have experimented with various combinations of around 20 different AI systems, including descriptive and predictive machine learning systems, model generators, constraint solvers, satisfiability solvers, theorem provers and computer algebra systems. Many of the applications described below make use of a combination of reasoning systems. We have also looked at some more generic ways to combine AI systems. The following papers describe some of our projects in this area:

Colton, Simon

Joined-Up Reasoning for Automated Scientific Discovery: A Position Statement and Research Agenda Inproceedings

In: AAAI Fall Symposium: Automated Scientific Discovery, pp. 18–19, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Charnley, John; Colton, Simon

A Global Workspace Framework for Combining Reasoning Systems Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Intelligent Computer Mathematics, pp. 261–265, Springer Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2008, ISBN: 978-3-540-85110-3.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Charnley, John; Colton, Simon

Applications of a Global Workspace Framework to Mathematical Discovery Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Conferences on Intelligent Computer Mathematics workshop on Empirically Successful Automated Reasoning for Mathematics, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Sorge, Volker; Meier, Andreas; McCasland, Roy; Colton, Simon

Integrating AI Systems for Classification in Non-Associative Algebra Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 13th Symposium on the Integration of Symbolic Computation and Mechanized Reasoning , Elsevier, 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Sorge, Volker; Colton, Simon; Meier, Andreas

A Grid-based Application of Machine Learning to Model Generation Inproceedings

In: Poster Proceedings of KI'04, pp. 204, 2004.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Meier, Andreas; Sorge, Volker; Colton, Simon

Employing Theory Formation to Guide Proof Planning Incollection

In: Artificial Intelligence, Automated Reasoning, and Symbolic Computation, pp. 275–289, Springer, 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Applications to Discovery Tasks in Pure Mathematics

Pure mathematics is a unique domain for AI research, as mathematical enquiry involves many diverse forms of reasoning, hence we can look at the question of theory formation in pure mathematics and study computational systems which combine different AI techniques. In addition, the data in pure mathematics is usually error free, hence we can concentrate on pure forms of reasoning without (usually) requiring statistical interpretations. On numerous occasions, we have shown that HR and other systems can make mathematical discoveries of genuine value in graph theory, number theory and various algebraic domains of pure mathematics. In addition, by combining HR with multiple other AI systems, we have achieved new partial classifications of algebraic domains, which were previously beyond any computer (or human). The following papers describe some of our projects in this area:

Sorge, Volker; Meier, Andreas; McCasland, Roy; Colton, Simon

Automatic Construction and Verification of Isotopy Invariants Journal Article

In: Journal of Automated Reasoning, 40 (2-3), pp. 221–243, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Sorge, Volker; Colton, Simon; McCasland, Roy; Meier, Andreas

Classification Results in Quasigroup and Loop Theory via a Combination of Automated Reasoning Tools Journal Article

In: Commentationes Mathematicae Universitatis Carolinae, 49 (2), pp. 319–340, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Sorge, Volker

Automated Parameterisation of Finite Algebras Inproceedings

In: Workshop on Empirical Successful Automated Reasoning in Mathematics, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Computational Discovery in Pure Mathematics Book Chapter

In: Dzeroski, Saso; Todorowski, Ljupco (Ed.): Computational Discovery of Scientific Knowledge, 4660 , pp. 175–201, Springer, 2007.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Automated Conjecture Making In Number Theory Using HR, Otter and Maple Journal Article

In: Journal of Symbolic Computation, 39 (5), pp. 593–615, 2005.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Meier, Andreas; Sorge, Volker; McCasland, Roy

Automatic Generation of Classification Theorems for Finite Algebras Inproceedings

In: International Joint Conference on Automated Reasoning, pp. 400–414, Springer 2004.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Muggleton, Stephen

ILP for Mathematical Discovery Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming, pp. 93–111, Springer 2003.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Huczynska, Sophie

The HOMER System Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Automated Deduction, pp. 289–294, Springer 2003.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Making Conjectures About Maple Functions Incollection

In: Artificial Intelligence, Automated Reasoning, and Symbolic Computation, pp. 259–274, Springer, 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Dennis, Louise Abigail

The NumbersWithNames Program Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Seventh AI and Maths Symposium, 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; McCasland, Roy; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

Automated Theory Formation for Tutoring Tasks in Pure Mathematics Inproceedings

In: In CADE-18, Workshop on the Role of Automated Deduction in Mathematics, Citeseer 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Bundy, Alan; Colton, Simon; McCasland, Roy; Walsh, Toby

Semi-Automated Discovery in Zariski Spaces (A Proposal) Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Mathematics - a new Domain for Datamining? Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the IJCAI-01 Workshop on Knowledge Discovery from Distributed, Dynamic, Heterogenous, Autonomous Sources, 2001.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

Automatic Invention of Integer Sequences Inproceedings

In: AAAI/IAAI, pp. 558–563, 2000.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

On the Notion of Interestingness in Automated Mathematical Discovery Journal Article

In: International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53 (3), pp. 351–375, 2000.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Bundy, Alan; Walsh, Toby

Automated Discovery in Pure Mathematics Inproceedings

In: Automated Reasoning Workshop: Bridging the Gap between Theory and Practice, 1999.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Refactorable numbers-a machine invention Journal Article

In: Journal of Integer Sequences, 2 (99.1), pp. 2, 1999.

Links | BibTeX

Applications of ATF and Combined Reasoning to Other Domains

While pure mathematics has many advantages, other application domains also stretch the limits of AI systems and their combinations. In order to address the generic nature of the AI systems we have built, we have looked at various non-mathematical applications of ATF. In addition to the projects below, through the supervision of masters projects, we have looked at the usage of HR for musical anomaly detection, for discovery tasks in the gene ontology, for the analysis of board games and the invention of arithmetic puzzles, and for the discovery of software invariants. The following papers describe some of our projects in this area:

Colton, Simon

Countdown Numbers Game: Solved, Analysed, Extended Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AISB symposium on AI and Games, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Grov, Gudmund; Farquhar, Colin; Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon

Tinkering by Theory Formation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AIFM workshop, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cavallo, Flaminia; Pease, Alison; Gow, Jeremy; Colton, Simon

Using Theory Formation Techniques for the Invention of Fictional Concepts Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 176, 2013.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Llano, Maria Teresa; Ireland, Andrew; Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Charnley, John

Using Automated Theory Formation to Discover Invariants of Event-B Models Inproceedings

In: In Proceedings of the Rodin User and Developer Workshop, 2010.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Baumgarten, Robin; Nika, Maria; Gow, Jeremy; Colton, Simon

Towards the Automatic Invention of Simple Mixed Reality Games Inproceedings

In: Proc. of the AISB’09 Symp. on AI and Games, 2009.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Automatic Invention of Fitness Functions, with application to Scene Generation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the EvoMusArt Workshop, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Jiang, Ning; Colton, Simon

Boosting Descriptive ILP for Predictive Learning in Bioinformatics Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Inductive Logic Programming, pp. 275–289, Springer 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Santos, Paulo; Colton, Simon; Magee, Derek

Predictive and Descriptive Approaches to Learning Game Rules from Vision Data Incollection

In: Advances in Artificial Intelligence-IBERAMIA-SBIA 2006, pp. 349–359, Springer, 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Automated Puzzle Generation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AISB’02 Symposium on AI and Creativity in the Arts and Science, 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Automated Theory Formation Applied to Mutagenesis Data Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the First British-Cuban Workshop on BioInformatics, 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Improvement of AI Techniques

Given that our overall research goal is to improve the application of AI systems to intelligent tasks, it was sensible for us to question whether combined reasoning systems can improve upon stand-alone systems at standard tasks. Through our experiments with combined reasoning systems, we have shown in many cases that (a) combined reasoning systems can be more flexible in application than stand alone systems (b) combined reasoning systems can be more effective at solving traditional problems than stand alone systems, and (c) combined reasoning systems can undertake intelligent tasks that no single system can attempt. The following papers describe some of our projects in this area:

Ramezani, Ramin; Colton, Simon

Automatic Generation of Dynamic Investigation Problems Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, pp. 34, Citeseer 2010.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Smaill, Alan; Colton, Simon; Ireland, Andrew; Llano, Maria Teresa; Ramezani, Ramin; Grov, Gudmund; Guhe, Markus

Applying Lakatos-style reasoning to AI problems Book Chapter

In: Thinking Machines and the philosophy of computer science: Concepts and principles., Chapter 10, pp. 149–174, Information Science Reference, 2010, ISBN: 9781616920142.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Ramezani, Ramin; Colton, Simon

Solving Mutilated Problems Inproceedings

In: Automated Reasoning Workshop, pp. 27, 2009.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Charnley, John; Colton, Simon

Prediction using Machine Learned Constraint Satisfaction Programs Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, 2007.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Charnley, John; Colton, Simon

Expressing General Problems as CSPs Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Modelling and Solving Problems with Constraints at ECAI, Citeseer 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Charnley, John; Colton, Simon; Miguel, Ian

Automated Reformulation of Constraint Satisfaction Problems Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, pp. 8, Citeseer, 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Charnley, John; Colton, Simon; Miguel, Ian

Automatic generation of Implied Constraints Inproceedings

In: ECAI, pp. 73–77, 2006.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison

The TM System for Repairing Non-Theorems Journal Article

In: Electronic Notes in Theoretical Computer Science, 125 (3), pp. 87–101, 2005.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Hoermann, Ferdinand; Sutcliffe, Geoff; Pease, Alison

Machine Learning Case Splits for Theorem Proving Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Automated Reasoning Workshop, Edinburgh, 2005.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon

Automatic Conjecture Modification Book Chapter

In: Proceedings of the 11th Workshop On Automated Reasoning: Bridging The Gap Between Theory And Practice, 2004.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison

Lakatos-style automated theorem modification Inproceedings

In: ECAI, pp. 977, 2004.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Sutcliffe, Geoff; Gao, Yi; Colton, Simon

A Grand Challenge of Theorem Discovery Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Workshop on Challenges and Novel Applications for Automated Reasoning, 19th International Conference on Automated Reasoning, pp. 1–11, 2003.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Zimmer, Jürgen; Franke, Andreas; Colton, Simon; Sutcliffe, Geoff

Integrating HR and tptp2x into MathWeb to Compare Automated Theorem Provers Inproceedings

In: In Proceedings of the CADE'02 Workshop on Problems and Problem sets, Citeseer 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Sutcliffe, Geoff

Automatic Generation of Benchmark Problems for Automated Theorem Proving Systems. Inproceedings

In: AMAI, 2002.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Automated Theorem Discovery: Future Direction for Theorem Provers Miscellaneous

2001.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Miguel, Ian

Constraint Generation via Automated Theory Formation Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Principles and Practice of Constraint Programming, pp. 575–579, Springer 2001.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Theory Formation Applied to Learning, Discovery and Problem Solving Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of Machine Intelligence 17, 2000.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Automating Graphic Design and Visual Arts Processes

While the HR system provided a good platform for the study of how to automate mathematical and scientific creative processes, in order to further study computational creativity, we have also undertaken a number of projects aimed at automating processes in the creative industries. In particular, we have built The Painting Fool as a software artist, which we intend will be taken seriously as a creative artist in its own right, one day. In order to facilitate the creative construction of scenes, we have pushed evolutionary and constraint solving techniques to the limit. We have also looked into various evolutionary art projects, and we have introduced a new browsing paradigm called Objet Trouve Computing, where the software drives the process as much as the user, but also learns the user’s preferences along the way. The following papers describe some of our projects in this area:

Colton, Simon; Halskov, Jakob; Ventura, Dan; Gouldstone, Ian; Cook, Michael; Ferrer, Blanca P'erez

The Painting Fool Sees! New Projects with the Automated Painter Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2015.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Ventura, Dan

You Can't Know my Mind: A Festival of Computational Creativity Inproceedings

In: Late Breaking Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Ferrer, Blanca P'erez

No Photos Harmed/Growing Paths from Seed: An Exhibition Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Symposium on Non-Photorealistic Animation and Rendering, pp. 1–10, Eurographics Association 2012.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Evolving a Library of Artistic Scene Descriptors Inproceedings

In: International Conference on Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music and Art, pp. 35–47, Springer 2012.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

The Painting Fool: Stories from Building an Automated Painter Incollection

In: Computers and creativity, pp. 3–38, Springer, 2012.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

The Painting Fool in New Dimensions Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2011.

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Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon

Automated Collage Generation – With More Intent Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2011.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Cook, Michael; Raad, Azalea

Ludic Considerations of Tablet-Based Evo-Art Inproceedings

In: European Conference on the Applications of Evolutionary Computation, pp. 223–233, Springer 2011.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Gow, Jeremy; Torres, Pedro; Cairns, Paul

Experiments in Objet Trouvé Browsing Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 1st Int. Joint Conference on Computational Creativity, 2010.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

The Painting Fool Teaching Interface Incollection

In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2010.

Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Stroke Matching for Paint Dances Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Sixth international Conference on Computational Aesthetics in Graphics, Visualization and Imaging, Eurographics Association, 2010.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Krzeczkowska, Anna; El-Hage, Jad; Colton, Simon; Clark, Stephen

Automated Collage Generation - With Intent Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2010.

Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Browne, Cameron

Evolving Simple Art-based Games Inproceedings

In: Workshops on Applications of Evolutionary Computation, 2009.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Torres, Pedro

Evolving Approximate Image Filters Inproceedings

In: 7th European Workshop on Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design , 2009.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Amelie’s Progress Gallery / Imaginations #1 Booklet

2008.

Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Experiments in Constraint-Based Automated Scene Generation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 5th international Joint Workshop on Computational Creativity, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Torres, Pedro; Colton, Simon; Rüger, Stefan

Experiments in Example-Based Image Filter Retrieval Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Cross-Media Workshop, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Valstar, Michel F; Pantic, Maja

Emotionally Aware Automated Portrait Painting Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 3rd international conference on Digital Interactive Media in Entertainment and Arts, 2008.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Hull, Marc; Colton, Simon

Towards a General Framework for Program Generation in Creative Domains Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 4th International Joint Workshop on Computational Creativity, 2007.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Issues in Automated Game Design

We have been working with video games companies towards the long term goal of dynamically adapting games, which tailor their content and gameplay to individual players, by learning about them and predicting how their experience will change as the game changes. We have concentrated on evaluating and predicting player experience from their gameplay data, in addition to working on content generation projects and the use of Monte-Carlo Tree Search methods. Through the ANGELINA system, we have also studied how entire games can be generated through a co-evolution procedure, which has brought up a number of higher-level issues such as player verbs, subjectivity, software as part of a creative community and automated code generation.

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon; Gow, Jeremy

The ANGELINA Videogame Design System, Part I Journal Article

In: IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 9 (2), pp. 192-203, 2017, ISSN: 1943-0698.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon; Gow, Jeremy

The ANGELINA Videogame Design System, Part II Journal Article Forthcoming

In: IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, Forthcoming.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon; Gow, Jeremy

Automating Game Design in Three Dimensions Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AISB symposium on AI and Games, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Browne, Cameron; Colton, Simon; Cook, Michael; Gow, Jeremy; Baumgarten, Robin

Toward the Adaptive Generation of Bespoke Game Content Book Chapter

In: IEEE Handbook of Digital Games , pp. 15–61, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon

Ludus Ex Machina: Building a 3D Game Designer that Competes Alongside Humans Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on computational creativity, 2014.

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Llano, Maria Teresa; Cook, Michael; Guckelsberger, Christian; Colton, Simon; Hepworth, Rose

Towards the Automatic Generation of Fictional Ideas for Games Inproceedings

In: Experimental AI in Games (EXAG’14), a workshop collocated with the tenth annual AAAI conference on artificial intelligence and interactive digital entertainment (AIIDE’14). AAAI Publications, 2014.

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Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon

A Rogue Dream: Automatically Generating Meaningful Content for Games Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AIIDE Workshop on Experimental AI and Games, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon

Countdown Numbers Game: Solved, Analysed, Extended Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AISB symposium on AI and Games, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon

A Puzzling Present: Code Modification for Game Mechanic Design Inproceedings

In: Demo session Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2013.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon

From Mechanics to Meaning and Back Again: Exploring Techniques for the Contextualisation of Code Inproceedings

In: Procs. of the AIIDE Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Game Aesthetics, 2013.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon; Gow, Jeremy

Nobody’s a Critic: On the Evaluation of Creative Code Generators--A Case Study in Video Game Design Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 123–130, 2013.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon; Raad, Azalea; Gow, Jeremy

Mechanic Miner: Reflection-Driven Game Mechanic Discovery and Level Design Inproceedings

In: European Conference on the Applications of Evolutionary Computation, pp. 284–293, Springer 2013.

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Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison

Aesthetic Considerations for Automated Platformer Design Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 8th AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, 2012.

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Browne, Cameron; Colton, Simon

Computational Creativity in a Closed Game System Inproceedings

In: 2012 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games (CIG), pp. 296–303, IEEE 2012.

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Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon; Gow, Jeremy

Initial Results From Co-Operative Co-Evolution for Automated Platformer Design Inproceedings

In: European Conference on the Applications of Evolutionary Computation, pp. 194–203, Springer 2012.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon

ANGELINA-Coevolution in Automated Game Design Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 228, 2012.

Links | BibTeX

Browne, Cameron B; Powley, Edward; Whitehouse, Daniel; Lucas, Simon M; Cowling, Peter; Rohlfshagen, Philipp; Tavener, Stephen; Perez, Diego; Samothrakis, Spyridon; Colton, Simon

A Survey of Monte Carlo Tree Search Methods Journal Article

In: IEEE Transactions on Computational Intelligence and AI in Games, 4 (1), pp. 1–43, 2012.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Gow, Jeremy; Baumgarten, Robin; Cairns, Paul A; Colton, Simon; Miller, Paul

Unsupervised Modeling of Player Style With LDA Journal Article

In: IEEE Trans. Comput. Intellig. and AI in Games, 4 (3), pp. 152–166, 2012.

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Gow, Jeremy; Colton, Simon; Cairns, Paul A; Miller, Paul

Mining Rules from Player Experience and Activity Data Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Eighth AAAI Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment, AIIDE-12, Stanford, California, October 8-12, 2012, 2012.

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Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon

Multi-Faceted Evolution of Simple Arcade Games Inproceedings

In: Proceedings IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence and Games, pp. 289–296, 2011.

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Baumgarten, Robin; Colton, Simon; Morris, Mark

Combining AI Methods for Learning Bots in a Real-Time Strategy Game Journal Article

In: International Journal of Computer Games Technology, 2009.

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Colton, Simon; Browne, Cameron

Evolving Simple Art-based Games Inproceedings

In: Workshops on Applications of Evolutionary Computation, 2009.

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Baumgarten, Robin; Colton, Simon

Case-based Player Simulation for the Commercial Strategy Game DEFCON Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of CGames, 2007.

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Automating Tasks in Creative Language

Our newest application domain is creative language, where we are have looked at poetry generation as part of The Painting Fool project, and we are part of a team building The What-If Machine for fictional ideation. One of our main contributions is to push the idea of software accounting for its actions via generating texts which acts as commentaries on what it has done, why, and what it has produced.

Llano, Maria Teresa; Colton, Simon; Hepworth, Rose; Gow, Jeremy

Automated Fictional Ideation via Knowledge Base Manipulation Journal Article

In: Cognitive Computation, 8 (2), pp. 153-174, 2016.

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Corneli, Joseph; Jordanous, Anna; Shepperd, Rosie; Llano, Maria Teresa; Misztal, Joanna; Colton, Simon; Guckelsberger, Christian

Computational Poetry Workshop: Making Sense of Work in Progress Inproceedings

In: Proc. 6th Int. Conf. Computational Creativity, 2015.

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Llano, Maria Teresa; Hepworth, Rose; Colton, Simon; Gow, Jeremy; Charnley, John; Lavrač, Nada; Žnidaršič, Martin; Perovšek, Matic; Granroth-Wilding, Mark; Clark, Stephen

Baseline Methods For Automated Fictional Ideation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on computational creativity, 2014.

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Llano, Maria Teresa; Hepworth, Rose; Colton, Simon; Charnley, John; Gow, Jeremy

Automating Fictional Ideation Using ConceptNet Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AISB14 symposium on computational creativity, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Charnley, John; Colton, Simon; Llano, Maria Teresa

The FloWr Framework: Automated Flowchart Construction, Optimisation and Alteration for Creative Systems Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 5th international conference on computational creativity, 2014.

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Perovšek, Matic; Cestnik, Bojan; Urbančič, Tanja; Colton, Simon; Lavrač, Nada

Towards Narrative Ideation via Cross-Context Link Discovery Using Banded Matrices Incollection

In: Proceedings of the Twelfth International Symposium on Intelligent Data Analysis, 2013.

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Colton, Simon; Charnley, John

Towards a Flowcharting System for Automated Process Invention Inproceedings

In: Demo session Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2013.

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Colton, Simon

On Shape Poems and the Shape of Poems: A Computational Creativity Perspective Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Second Interdisciplinary Workshop The Shape of Things, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, April 3-4, 2013, pp. 23–28, 2013.

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Colton, Simon; Goodwin, Jacob; Veale, Tony

Full-FACE Poetry Generation Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 95–102, 2012.

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Addressing Questions of Computational Creativity

A number of researchers are taking a longer view, and addressing broader questions in computing, such as the notion of whether a computer can exhibit creative behaviour. Only in recent years has AI software reached a level of complexity and ability that this question can be addressed in a concrete rather than a purely theoretical way. This is a field we have been involved in via research, organisation and participation in various workshops and conferences, since 1999. Given that the HR system undertakes some of the more creative tasks in pure mathematics (such as inventing concepts and making conjectures), we have used HR (and other systems) to look at various notions connected to computational creativity. In more recent work, we have addressed the issues raised by The Painting Fool project, to further our understanding of computational creativity in an artistic rather than a scientific domain. The following papers describe some of our projects in this area:

Cook, Michael; Colton, Simon

Generating Code For Expressing Simple Preferences: Moving On From Hardcoding And Randomness Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 8, 2015.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison; Corneli, Joseph; Cook, Michael; Hepworth, Rose; Ventura, Dan

Stakeholder Groups in Computational Creativity Research and Practice Incollection

In: Computational Creativity Research: Towards Creative Machines, pp. 3–36, Springer, 2015.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Cook, Michael; Hepworth, Rose; Pease, Alison

On Acid Drops and Teardrops: Observer Issues in Computational Creativity Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 7th AISB Symposium on Computing and Philosophy, 2014.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX

Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison; Corneli, Joseph; Cook, Michael; Llano, Maria Teresa

Assessing Progress in Building Autonomously Creative Systems Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 137–145, 2014.

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Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Ramezani, Ramin; Charnley, John; Reed, Kate

A Discussion on Serendipity in Creative Systems Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 64–71, 2013.

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Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Charnley, John

The Turing Test and Computational Creativity Inproceedings

In: Contributed talks proceedings of the Turing Centenary Conference, 2012.

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Charnley, John; Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon

On the Notion of Framing in Computational Creativity Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 77–81, 2012.

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Colton, Simon; Wiggins, Geraint A

Computational Creativity: The Final Frontier? Inproceedings

In: ECAI, pp. 21–26, 2012.

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Pease, Alison; Charnley, John; Colton, Simon

Using Grounded Theory to Suggest Types of Framing Information for Computational Creativity Book Chapter

In: Proceedings of the Workshop "Computational Creativity, Concept Invention, and General Intelligence", pp. 7–13, University of Osnabrück, Institute of Cognitive Science, 2012.

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Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon

On Impact and Evaluation in Computational Creativity: A Discussion of the Turing Test and an Alternative Proposal Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the AISB symposium on AI and Philosophy, 2011.

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Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon

Computational Creativity Theory: Inspirations Behind the FACE and the IDEA Models Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computational Creativity, 2011.

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Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison; Charnley, John

Computational Creativity Theory: The FACE and IDEA Descriptive Models Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Computational Creativity, pp. 90–95, 2011.

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Colton, Simon; de Mantaras, Ram'on L'opez; Stock, Oliviero

Computational Creativity: Coming of Age Journal Article

In: 2009.

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Pease, Alison; Smaill, Alan; Colton, Simon; Lee, John

Bridging the Gap Between Argumentation Theory and the Philosophy of Mathematics Journal Article

In: Foundations of Science, 14 (1-2), pp. 111–135, 2009.

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Colton, Simon

Seven Catchy Phrases for Computational Creativity Research Inproceedings

In: Dagstuhl Seminar Proceedings, Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz-Zentrum fuer Informatik 2009.

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Colton, Simon

Creativity Versus the Perception of Creativity in Computational Systems Inproceedings

In: AAAI Spring Symposium: Creative Intelligent Systems, pp. 14–20, 2008.

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Colton, Simon

Creative Logic Programming Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the 3rd. IJCAI Workshop on Creative Systems, pp. 77, 2003.

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Pease, Alison; Colton, Simon; Smaill, Alan; Lee, John

Lakatos and Machine Creativity Inproceedings

In: Second Workshop on Creative Systems, Approaches to Creativity in Artificial Intelligence and Cognitive Science at the European Conference on Artificial Intelligence (ECAI 2002), 2002.

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Colton, Simon; Pease, Alison; Ritchie, Graeme

The Effect of Input Knowledge on Creativity Inproceedings

In: Proceedings of the ICCBR'01 Workshop on Creative Systems, 2001.

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Pease, Alison; Winterstein, Daniel; Colton, Simon

Evaluating Machine Creativity Inproceedings

In: Workshop on Creative Systems, 4th International Conference on Case Based Reasoning, pp. 129–137, 2001.

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Colton, Simon; Steel, Graham

Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Creativity Journal Article

In: Artificial Intelligence and the Study of Behaviour Quarterly, 102 , 1999.

Links | BibTeX

Uncategorised Publications

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Guckelsberger, Christian; Salge, Christoph; Colton, Simon

Addressing the "Why?" in Computational Creativity: A Non-Anthropocentric, Minimal Model of Intentional Creative Agency Inproceedings

In: Proc. 8th Int. Conf. Computational Creativity, 2017 , 2017.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Enactivism, Intentionality, Intrinsic Motivation

Guckelsberger, Christian; Salge, Christoph; Colton, Simon

Intrinsically Motivated General Companion NPCs via Coupled Empowerment Maximisation Inproceedings

In: Proc. IEEE Conf. Computational Intelligence in Games (CIG’16), IEEE, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: General Game Playing, Intrinsic Motivation

Guckelsberger, Christian; Salge, Christoph; Saunders, Rob; Colton, Simon

Supportive and Antagonistic Behaviour in Distributed Computational Creativity via Coupled Empowerment Maximisation Inproceedings

In: Proc. 7th Int. Conf. Computational Creativity, 2016.

Abstract | Links | BibTeX | Tags: Co-Creativity, Empowerment, Intrinsic Motivation, Social Creativity

Research Collaborators

I’ve been very fortunate to work with a number of very good researchers, including the following co-authors (in surname alphabetical order):

  • Eduardo Alonso
  • Robin Baumgarten
  • Cameron Browne
  • Alan Bundy
  • Paul Cairns
  • Emilios Cambouropoulos
  • Flaminia Cavallo
  • Bojan Cestnik
  • John Charnley
  • Stephen Clark
  • James Clewitt
  • Michael Cook
  • Joe Corneli
  • Peter Cowling
  • Stephen Cresswell
  • Louise Dennis
  • Lydon Drake
  • Jad El-Hage
  • Colin Farquhar
  • Andreas Franke
  • Alan Frisch
  • Pablo Gervas
  • Yi Gao
  • Mark Granroth-Wilding
  • Jacob Goodwin
  • Ian Gouldstone
  • Jeremy Gow
  • Gudmund Grov
  • Christian Guckelsberger
  • Marcus Guhe
  • Jakob Halskov
  • Rose Hepworth
  • Ferdinand Hoermann
  • Andrew Howlett
  • Marc Hull
  • Sophie Huczynska
  • Andrew Ireland
  • Ning Jiang
  • Anna Krzeczkowska
  • Kai-Uwe Kuhnberger
  • Daniel Kudenko
  • Oliver Kutz
  • Nada Lavrac
  • John Lee
  • Andrew Lim
  • Chong-U Lim
  • Maria Teresa Llano
  • Ramon Lopez de Mantaras
  • Simon Lucas
  • Derek Magee
  • Andrew Martin
  • Roy McCasland
  • Andreas Meier
  • Ian Miguel
  • Paul Miller
  • Joanna Misztal
  • Luc Moreau
  • Mark Morris
  • Stephen Muggleton
  • Maria Nika
  • Ramon Otero
  • Maja Pantic
  • Diego Perez
  • Blanca Perez-Ferrer
  • Matic Perovsek
  • Edward Powley
  • Azalea Raad
  • Ramin Ramezani
  • Daniel Ramirez-Cano
  • Kate Reed
  • Graeme Ritchie
  • Philipp Rohlfshagen
  • Stefan Rueger
  • Spyridon Samothrakis
  • Paulo Santos
  • Marco Schorlemmer
  • Michael Schroeder
  • Murray Shanahan
  • Rosie Shepperd
  • Alan Smaill
  • Volker Sorge
  • Kostas Stathis
  • Graham Steel
  • Oliviero Stock
  • Geoff Sutcliffe
  • Stephen Tavener
  • Pedro Torres
  • Tanja Urbancic
  • Michel Valstar
  • Tony Veale
  • Dan Ventura
  • Toby Walsh
  • Daniel Wagner
  • Daniel Whitehouse
  • Geraint Wiggins
  • Dan Winterstein
  • Georgios Yannakakis
  • Jurgen Zimmer
  • Martin Znidarsic